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16,95 €

Franz Joseph Haydn
Stabat Mater – Hob. XXa:1


REF.: CARUS 83.281
EAN 13: 4009350832817


El Stabat Mater de Joseph Haydn, escrito en 1767, fue el primer trabajo sacro del compositor escrito tras entrar al servicio del Príncipe Esterházy en Eisenstadt. A diferencia de la mayoría de sus obras de origen litúrgico, esta pieza comenzó a circular por toda Europa y a ser copiada en múltiples ocasiones, lo que acabó por reportar a Haydn una fantástica reputación en la época como compositor especializado en música vocal.

Analizado con perspectiva, el Stabat Mater es una partitura pensada a gran escala que pretendía sentar las bases de una futura colaboración con la familia Esterházy en un ámbito que hasta entonces había sido cubierto por Gregor Joseph Werner. El estreno mundial de la obra pudo tener lugar en Viernes Santo, el 17 de abril de 1767, en la capilla de la corte de Eisenstadt, dentro del marco de las representaciones de la Semana Santa que se celebraban allí todos los años. Tal fue el éxito que fue invitado a repetir la actuación un año más tarde en la Iglesia de San Juan de Dios en Viena, concierto que organizaría el propio Johann Adolph Hasse. 

Esta nueva grabación de Frieder Bernius se muestra convincente en todos sus aspectos artísticos, desde los solistas de primer nivel, pasando por el Kammerchor Stuttgart (que celebra su 50 aniversario en este 2018) hasta el Hofkapelle Stuttgart, que suena como pocas veces antes. Se ha utilizado para la interpretación la nueva edición crítica del trabajo, publicada recientemente por Carus y que atiende a toda esa miríada de detalles necesarios para convertir una gran obra en una obra maestra.

FECHA DE PUBLICACIÓN
08/03/2018

INTÉRPRETES
Sarah Wegener
Marie Henriette Reinhold
Colin Balzer
Sebastian Noack
Kammerchor Stuttgart
Hofkapelle Stuttgart
Frieder Bernius, dirección

DATOS DE PRODUCCIÓN
Coproduction by Südwestrundfunk and Carus-Verlag
Recorded at the Ev. Kirche Reutlingen-Gönningen, 5–7 April 2017
Executive producer: Dagmar Munck
Recording producer: Gabriele Starke
Recording engineer: Veit Wafzig (recording), Martin Vögele (mixing)
Editing: Irmgard Bauer, Caroline Rebstock
Mastering: Caroline Rebstock

CONTENIDO
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809):

1 Solo T, Coro: Stabat Mater dolorosa 7 :01
2 Solo A: O quam tristis et affl icta 6:52
3 Coro: Quis est homo qui non fl eret 1 :45
4 Solo S: Quis non posset contristari 5 :14
5 Solo B: Pro peccatis suae gentis 2 :34
6 Solo T: Vidit suum dulcem natum 5 :08
7 Coro: Eja Mater, fons amoris 3 :09
8 Soli ST: Sancta Mater, istud agas 7 :01
9 Solo A: Fac me vere tecum fl ere 5 :22
10 Soli SATB, Coro: Virgo virginum praeclara 6 :31
11 Solo B: Flammis orci ne succendar 2 :05
12 Solo T: Fac me cruce custodiri 2 :31
13 Soli SA, Coro: Quando corpus morietur 1 :24
14 Soli SATB, Coro: Paradisi Gloria 3:14

1 CD - DDD - 59:58

RESEÑA (La Quinta de Mahler)

When, from 1766 onwards, Joseph Haydn was fi nally able to take over from his predecessor Gregor Joseph Werner the sole responsibility for church music at the Esterházy court – in addition to the direction of chamber and theater music – he devoted more time to the composition of sacred music. The first larger-scale sacred work to be composed in this context was the Stabat Mater, completed in 1767.

The world premiere of this work seems to have taken place on Good Friday, 17 April 1767 in the Eisenstadt court chapel within the framework of the oratorial Good Friday performances which were held there every year. In all probability Haydn had been invited to perform his work again in the Church of St. John of God Brothers in Vienna a year later, which was organized by no less a personage than Johann Adolph Hasse who had been in the service of the emperor since 1764. The fi rst documented public performance took place in Vienna on 29 March 1771, in the Piarist church Maria Treu in the Josephstadt borough of Vienna. Once again, it formed part of a Good Friday Vesper service. According to the church chronicles, an impressive number of 60 musicians participated, directed by the composer himself. At the latest from this point onwards, the Stabat Mater began its triumphal march through churches and concert halls. As can be deduced from the provenance of early copies, which were often prepared by Viennese copying offi ces, the work was performed both in the churches of important monasteries and palaces as well as in major cities in the Austrian, South German, Bohemian and Italian regions. Of around 180 extant copies – an immense number – more than 40 date from the years before 1790. However, it was not only as a liturgical work, as music for Lent and Passion services, but also from very early on as a repertoire piece in the Concerts spirituels that the Stabat Mater gained extraordinary popularity with a very wide audience. It was fi rst heard in such a sacred concert in the Leipzig University Church in 1779. The conductor was Johann Adam Hiller, who also furnished the work with a German parody text. Shortly thereafter – and regularly until the French Revolution – it also formed part of the Concerts spirituels which took place in Paris during Lent. The next surge of success expanded to include also the Protestant regions of Northern and Central Germany, initiated by a piano-vocal score published in 1782 by Hiller, who underlaid it with his parody text from the Leipzig performance of 1779. In part infl uenced and inspired by Hiller’s text, but frequently also entirely independently of it, numerous new German parody texts were written for Haydn’s Stabat Mater, which were widely distributed.

The Latin poetry of the sequence which forms the basis of Haydn’s original setting initially dated from the late 13th century. It was probably written within the environs of the Franciscan Order and consists of 10 verses of 6 lines each. After the Council of Trent, it was only allowed to be performed outside of the Mass, until in 1727 it was allocated a new liturgical place – the Feast of the Seven Sorrows of Mary which in that year was introduced as generally binding for the church and prescribed for Friday before Palm Sunday.

Haydn composed his Stabat Mater for four soloists, four-part choir, two oboes/English horns, strings and basso continuo – quite a lavish scoring by comparison; there were indeed other 18thcentury settings for double choir or using additional wind instruments, but they generally tended to restrict themselves to accompaniment by a “church trio” and only a few voices, as is the case in the famous Stabat Mater by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi which was composed for only two solo singers. Haydn’s Stabat Mater does not resemble this work with respect to scoring, but there are striking similarities in musical form and characteristics. Even contemporary listeners already recognized – in the hints of Neapolitan elements as much as in the extraordinary cantabile quality of some movements – reminiscences of the stylistically defi ning and, at that time, still omnipresent setting by Pergolesi. Furthermore, the two works have something in common with regard to their reception: Hiller also published a piano-vocal score of the Pergolesi composition and furnished it with a German parody text, in this case the Stabat Mater version by Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock. And so it is not surprising that Haydn’s composition was granted a similar degree of success as Pergolesi’s, which it gradually came to replace as the exemplary Stabat Mater setting.

For a planned repeat performance of his Stabat Mater in 1803, Haydn commissioned his student Sigismund Neukomm to compose additional wind and timpani parts. Even though Haydn ultimately offered this “expanded instrumentation,” to the publisher G. C. Härtel for publication, this version must be regarded solely as a concession to the changing taste of this time; the intimate character gives way to the fuller orchestral sound by the addition of more harmony instruments. The present recording, on the other hand, follows the new critical edition of the work (Carus 51.991) based on the original instrumentation.

In addition to its comparatively expansive scoring, the work – which incidentally was categorized under “Oratorios” by Haydn himself in his catalog of 1805 – is also a composition of substantial length with around 60 minutes’ performance duration; the division into 14 numbers provides a great wealth of variety. In the expressive arias, duets, ensemble and choral movements, Haydn used many different musical forms and gestures, as well as variations in instrumentation. The single movements, all furnished throughout with fi gured bass, are related to one another musically and display an intelligent sense of dramaturgy. If Haydn’s Stabat Mater is, on the one hand, an exemplary model of the “empfi ndsamer Stil,” it demonstrates at the same time – and not least in these elements which serve to create coherence – a striving towards the Classical ideal of unity in diversity. The remarkable wealth of diverse sonorities must be emphasized, even though all the movements are pervaded by a sense of optimism and a bright underlying mood in view of the certainty of Jesus’s sacrifi cial death, crowned by the radiant, almost majestically jubilant closing fugue “Paradisi gloria.” Nevertheless, contemporary listeners regarded “Haydn’s masterpiece” as the epitome of a dignifi ed, refl ectively worshiping Passion music, as an “excellent piece, with deeply moving beauty and highly appropriate expressivity, and the only one that could hold its ground next to Pergolesi’s.”

Clemens Harasim Translation (abridged): David Kosviner

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