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Romanus Weichlein
Masses


REF.: ACC 24342
EAN 13: 4015023243422
Si realiza el pedido hoy, este producto estará listo para ser enviado el lunes 17/12/2018

Romanus Weichlein nació en Linz en el seno de una familia muy vinculada con el mundo de la música. Sus padres, también instrumentistas, fueron pronto conscientes del talento de su hijo y le dieron una buena educación musical. Tras trasladarse a Salzburgo donde conoció a Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber, regresó a Lambach para convertirse más tarde en capellán y director musical del convento benedictino de Nonnberg, en Salzburgo.

Su obra consiste en una docena de sonatas para cuerdas y bajo continuo (Opus 1) y una colección de siete misas completas (Opus 2). Las misas son un ejemplo de intimidad y equilibrio sin caer en excesos virtuosísticos, más allá de algunos pasajes vocales concretos. Los episodios polifónicos y homofónicos se van alternando, al igual que las secciones en tutti y a solo o los preludios e interludios instrumentales, dotando al conjunto de una riqueza extraordinaria Weichlein también hace gala de un fantástico sentido tímbrico cuando la ocasión lo requiere, como la notable  aparición de los tres trombones en la Missa Rectorum Cordium.

Para interpretar esta compleja arquitectura superpuesta con todo su esplendor nadie mejor que Gunar Letzbor y su Ars Antiqua Austria, en este caso enriquecidos por el coro infantil St. Florianer Sängerknaben, un prodigio de ductilidad y empaste. El resultado es una apasionante muestra de una época poco conocida dentro de la música austriaca, y que nos habla de un esplendor cultural que va mucho más lejos del ya reivindicado Biber. 

FECHA DE PUBLICACIÓN
08/03/2018

INTÉRPRETES
St. Florianer Sängerknaben
Ars Antiqua Austria
Gunar Letzbor, dirección


CONTENIDO
Romanus Weichlein (1652-1706): 

CD 1 [50:22]
1 Canon über das Post-Hörnl 4:57
2 Eripe me Domine (Tractus 2) 4:57
3 Domine (Tractus 1) 5:29
Missa Rectorum Cordium
für 6 Stimmen, Streicher, 3 Trompeten,
2 Posaunen, Pauken & basso continuo
4 Kyrie 3:20
5 Gloria 10:47
6 Credo 12:41
7 Sanctus 2:22
8 Benedictus 2:19
9 Agnus Dei 3:24

CD 2 [74:31]
Missa Sanctissimæ Trinitatis
für 4 Stimmen, Streicher & basso continuo
1 Kyrie 7:33
2 Gloria 9:40
3 Credo 12:24
4 Sanctus 8:50
5 Agnus Dei 2:38
Missa Gloriosæ Virginis in Coelo
für 4 Stimmen, Streicher & basso continuo
6 Kyrie 5:58
7 Gloria 8:25
8 Credo 10:51
9 Sanctus 4:22
10 Agnus Dei 3:43

RESEÑA (La Quinta de Mahler)

P. Romanus Weichlein (1652-1706) shares his fate with many composers of his time, as he, together with his artistic works fell into oblivion shortly after his death. His name did remain, however, in the records of the monasteries he was part of – Lambach from 1671, and the Benedictine convent, Nonnberg in Salzburg and in Säben (South Tyrol). In1936 the Lambacher monk, P. Arno Eilenstein published a “Professbuch” (Book of Vows), in which all the monks of this monastery were listed by name since its foundation in the year 1056 together with a short profile. Weichlein and his works are included here. Musicologist, Helene Wessely researched the works indicated in the Professbuch and further biographical data on Weichlein.

Father Romanus Weichlein was born in Linz on the 8th of May, 1650 and was baptized with the name Andreas Franz. He came from a musical family of unknown origins; we do know that his father, Johann Weichlein was organist in the monastery of Zwettl (lower Austria). Later, he went to Linz where he was employed from 1639 to 1677 as organist of the city and where he owned a restaurant. With his wife Sabina, he had nine children, of whom Romanus and his older brother Magnus were musicians. It is likely that both brothers attended the Humaniora in the Lambach monastery. They became novices in the cloistered community there in 1666 (Magnus) and in 1671 (Romanus).

As easy as it is to trace their theological education – both studied and got their doctorate degrees at the University of Salzburg – it is, on the other hand, very difficult to trace their musical education. One of their most influential teachers was undoubtedly the organist of Lambach monastery, Benjamin Ludwig Ramhaufski (c 1631-1694). It was mostly likely Ramhaufski who created the connection with Lambach because his first wife, Anna (née Siemer,) was born in Linz. It can be deduced that Ramhaufski who was from Prague, and who also spent time in Passau, had personal connections in the capitol city of Upper Austria. The close relationship to the family Weichlein becomes even clearer after the death of Anna Ramhaufski in 1678, because in May of 1679 documents from the Lambach monastery record the marriage of a certain H. Beniamin Ludovicus / Ramhaufski, organist, to Anna Barbara Weichlein of Linz. The marriage ceremony was performed by Father Romanus.

After his ordination in1678, P. Romanus rarely went to Lambach. We know from a letter he received from his fellow monk, P. Georg Schönberger that in 1684 he was the spiritual father in the small parish of Oberkirchen (in Lower Austria), and was then promoted to chaplain and musical prefect of the Benedictine convent of Nonnberg. On the 22nd of September, 1691 the abbess of this Salzburg convent wrote a letter to the abbot of Lambach requesting “the services of the venerable P: Roman Weichlin”, for the newly founded Expositur in Säben (Southern Tyrol) as chaplain and musical instructor. The nun’s request was granted and Weichlein arrived in Säben less than a month later on the 17th of October, 1691. There he remained in service, to the pleasure of the entire convent, until January1705. However just a few weeks after he had gone back to his home cloister in Lambach, he had to leave once again for new field service; he had to go to Kleinfrauenhaid in present-day Burgenland, an incorporated parish of Lambach . However, this stay didn’t last long, and after just one year, it came to an end through Weichlein’s death (1706).

The present Missa rectorum cordium is cited in the Professbuch of 1936 and is mentioned often in later (sparse) literature. It was kept in the monastery of Kremsmünster in unpublished separate parts. The complexity of this mass was first revealed in the course of the preparation of the score by Claudia Gerauer in 2005. The work is a classical Austrian baroque mass in “stilus solenne” as can be seen by the numerous wind instruments called for, as well as by the presence of a six-part choir. The influence of the Salzburg court tradition is particularly evident in the presence of two or three trombones that play “colla parte” – together with the lower voices of the choir – and serve to enrich the tone color. Ars Antiqua Austria director, Gunar Letzbor suggests that the presence of three trumpet parts as well as the three voices of the solo parts of the mass could very well be a symbol for the trinity. The Kyrie stands out because of its asymmetrical structure, in contrast to the symmetrical ABA form of the text. Weichlein was somewhat daring in the internal structure as well. A three-bar fanfare opens the Kyrie followed by two bars of the chorus. The “missing” fourth bar of the introduction comes after the chorus as a link to two further bars of the chorus that complete these curious first eight bars. After the ample Kyrie I follows the Christe in imitative polyphonic style, largely made up of elements from the instrumental “Sonatina” of Kyrie I, leaving out the trumpets almost completely. The short concluding Kyrie II accelerates the tempo through meter changes and closes with a written-out ritardando.

The Gloria is dominated by homophonic writing, enriched by solos in imitative style. The six-part choral writing is divided into three upper and three lower voices thus creating the impression of a double choir. The tonic of C major prevails, avoiding any dramatic interpretation of the text. At the beginning of the Credo Weichlein pays homage to the “omnipotent father” (patrem omnipotentem) with a bright trumpet fanfare, accompanied by only one chord, played by the strings as in a recitativo accompagnato. After this the trumpets are quiet until the “crucifixus”, where they are to play “con Zärdino” (with mute). Here Weichlein is using an old Salzbuger tradition in which muffled trumpets had to play fanfare signals in slow rhythms. The interpretation of the text and the colourful harmonies are more important in the Credo than in the Gloria. From the “Et resurrexit” to the end of the Credo, a spirited 3/2 meter prevails with very few interruptions. One special characteristic of the Sanctus is its long instrumental introduction. Normally, in the liturgy the three-fold “Holy, Holy, Holy” of the choir of angels comes in directly after the words of the celebrant. The entry of the choir in measure 15 is almost understated, in contrast to the pomposity with which other composers have set this text. Divine holiness is represented by a steady crescendo reaching its most brilliant point on the words “gloria tua”. The theme of the Agnus Dei is made up of the notes of a C major triad, developed first by vocal solos and subsequently by the whole choir. Its harmonic purity may be a symbol for the Christian idea of redemption through the Lamb of God.

The sources for both Officien für die Karwoche (Divine offices of the Holy Week) are to found in the musical library of Stift Lambach. The binding reveals “Francesco Weichlein” as the author. Romanus Weichlein’s name before entering the monastery was Andreas Franz. It is possible that these are two compositions from his youth. Another possibility is that these “Officien” are by his brother Franz Weichlein who was an organist and composer in Graz and always kept in touch with the monastery of Lambach (attested to by some letters found in the monastery archives). The Canon über das Post-Hörnl (Canon about the little post horn), 1686 was composed for the 35th birthday of Abbot Severin Blaß. It is a virtuoso composition in canon for four violins plus an ostinato bass of four notes. It is very technically demanding for the players and provides us with important documentation as to the high level of musicianship present in 17th century Austria.

The ordinaries of both Missa Sanctissimæ trinitatis and Missa gloriosæ Virginis in Coelo are part of a collection of works composed by Weichlein for the liturgy in Säben and published in Ulm in 1702 under the complete title of Parnassus Ecclesiastico-Musicus cum quibusdam suis selectioribus musis, seu septem missis musicalibus . The seven Masses are short and uniformly laid out. Virtuosity is for the most part in the shadows, with a few exceptions in the vocal parts. The musical structure is based on the constant change between homophonic and polyphonic sections, a cappella passages, vocal solos, instrumental preludes and interludes and tutti sections. With his frequent parallel treatment of voices and instruments, Weichlein is adhering to the Baroque technique of “colla parte”, where the instruments play the same line the voices sing. However he succeeds in breaking with schematic convention through the use of more independent string parts where the first violin sometimes rises decisively above the treble of the choir. This is an appealing effect, with hints of the concertante style of making music. The graceful simplicity of the melodies lead us to surmise that in these works our virtuoso violinist composer had an eye to a basically uncomplicated performance. The more dramatic passages occur in the Credo of the Missa Sanctissimae trinitatis, when in the Crucifixus the composer illustrates the raising of the cross through ascending chromatic notes. Later on in the Credo the text narrates Christ’s burial “passus, et sepultus est“, and here the melody descends chromatically.

As in many of his other later works Weichein makes ample use of triadic motives, which Weichlein scholar, Helene Wessely interprets as signposts to the early Classic period. Even if composer and Benedictine monk, Father Romanus Weichlein remains in the shadow of his great contemporaries, Schmelzer, Biber and Muffat, he nevertheless elaborated, perhaps not least of all because of his eccentric nature, a quite individual personal style and has been able to secure a solid place in the history of music. Peter Deinhammer

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